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There are various type of ankle deformities. Unfortunately many arthritic ankles are not straight. This is one reason why total ankle replacement can be challenging to get consistent results. It takes considerable experience to perform total ankle replacement on deformed or distorted ankles. Some surgeons will simply recommend ankle fusion because of the deformity complexity.
The deformities outlined below can be usually related to a traumatic incident cause direct injury to the ankle in the form of a severe ligament injury or fracture trauma. Sometimes the injury took place decades prior to the onset of pain symptoms.